Ba 585 midterm exam paper with answers

Question 1.1.
_____ is conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization.

(Points : 1)
Basic business research
Qualitative business research
Quantitative business research
Applied business research
Question 2.2.
All of the following are important aspects of the business research process EXCEPT _____.

(Points : 1)
     
gathering information
idea and theory development
analyzing data
making results publicly available
Question 3.3.
Campbell’s Soup is considering launching a new gumbo product and is testing different recipes with consumers before full commercialization. What type of research is Campbell’s using to determine which soup consumers will like the best?
(Points : 1)
secondary research
basic research
applied research
test research

Question 4.4.
All of the following are factors considered when deciding whether or not research is needed EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
nature of the decision
availability of data
managerial experience
benefits versus costs

Question 5.5.
A business professor is examining the relationship between age and ethical business behavior. The research is not being conducted for any specific business or even industry, but rather it is intended to better understand and predict this behavior across all aspects of business. This professor is conducting which type of business research?

(Points : 1)
     
basic business research
formal business research
applied business research
abstract business research

Question 6.6.
In general, the ______ important a decision is strategically to the organization, the ______ likely that research will be undertaken.
 (Points : 1)
less; more
more; more
more; less
none of these choices
Question 7.7.
Consumer research conducted in the United States indicates that many consumers consider the country of origin when purchasing products, and consumers tend to prefer products that are made in the U.S.A. To determine if consumers in other countries are partial to their own country’s products, what must be done before the empirical findings from the research conducted among U.S. consumers also exist and behave similarly in another culture?

(Points : 1)
     
reliability assessment
cultural cross-validation
benefit/cost analysis
cultural-monitoring research
Question 8.8.
When a manager decides not to do research because a decision needs to be made before the results of the study can be analyzed, this is an example of which aspect in the determination of the need for marketing research?

(Points : 1)
nature of the decision    
time constraints
availability of the data
cost considerations
Question 9.9.
When a manager is trying to decide whether a new product launch decision should be postponed until some additional research can be conducted, which of the following questions should this manager ask himself or herself?
 (Points : 1)
Is the proposed research expenditure the best use of the available funds?
Will the information gained by business research improve the quality of the business decision enough to warrant the expenditure?
Will the payoff from the research be worth the dollar expenditures for research?
all of these choices

Question 10.10.
A firm focusing more on how to provide value to customers than on the physical product or production process is embracing which business orientation?

(Points : 1)
marketing orientation
quality orientation
external orientation
value orientation

Question 11.11.
Wal-Mart is the low-cost leader in retail. This company achieves this success by prioritizing efficiency in its distribution process. Which business orientation is Wal-Mart exhibiting when it prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the supply chain process (i.e., getting products into the stores) in making decisions?
(Points : 1)
     
production-orientated
product-oriented
marketing-oriented
technically-oriented
Question 12.12.
_____ is the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives or whether continuing programs are presently performing as projected.
(Points : 1)
Monitoring research
Performance research
Comprehensive research
Evaluation research

Question 13.13.
All of the following are business orientations EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
 management-oriented
product-oriented
production-oriented
marketing-oriented
Question 14.14.
Which of the following is the first step in developing a business strategy?
 (Points : 1)
analyzing firm performance
identifying problems or opportunities
selecting and implementing a course of action
diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities
Question 15.15.
When conducting research internationally, it is important to _____ research results, which means the researcher verifies that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture.
 (Points : 1)
cross-validate
simulate
integrate
cross-analyze

Question 16.16.
When Target stores monitors the sales activities of its retail stores in order to detect any indication of dollar sales changes, this is an example of which type of research?
 (Points : 1)
relationship marketing research
total quality management research
basic research
performance-monitoring research
Question 17.17.
Which of the following refers to the way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world?
 (Points : 1)
qualitative method
quantitative method
scientific method
primary method
Question 18.18.
The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) requested research to determine if the financing option the company implemented for a new capital investment initiative achieved the objective of reducing the company’s tax liability. Which type of research is appropriate for evaluating this course of action?
(Points : 1)
basic research
post-hoc research
evaluation research
financial research
Question 19.19.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding business research?
 (Points : 1)
Business research covers a wide range of phenomena.
Business research is not considered rigorous enough to apply the scientific method.
The purpose of business research is to provide knowledge to managers.
Business research can be directed toward an element of an organization’s internal operations.

Question 20.20.
Which type of research tries to verify a theory or to learn more about a business concept and is not intended to solve a particular business problem?
 (Points : 1)
performance-monitoring research
basic research
total quality management
the scientific method

Question 21.21.
Which of the following is a method of data collection that is used in surveys?
 (Points : 1)
telephone
mail     
the Internet     
all of these choices
Question 22.22.
Companies, such as Kraft and Procter & Gamble, conduct research to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities. What type of business research is this?
 (Points : 1)
inferential
causal
descriptive
exploratory

Question 23.23.
Carol was invited to participate in a research study along with ten other employees to discuss their experiences using the company intranet. The group was asked to discuss their experiences and were encouraged to feed on each other’s comments. What is this type of study called?
 (Points : 1)
multivariate research
literature review
pretest
focus group interview

Question 24.24.
Jackie has noticed that when the temperature rises, sales at her clothing boutique also rise. This is an example of _____.
 (Points : 1)
concomitant variation
nonspurious variation
linear variation
absolute variation

Question 25.25.
When the researcher has only one or a small number of research objectives that can be addressed in a single study, that study is referred to as a _____.
 (Points : 1)
research project
research program
research assessment
research snapshot

Question 26.26.
Which type of association is said to occur when any covariation between a cause and effect is indeed due to the cause and not simply due to some other variable?
 (Points : 1)
nonspurious association
spurious association
concomitant association
temporal association

 

Question 27.27.
When drivers are unaware that a machine is recording how many cars pass a certain intersection that is being considered for a site for a new Wendy’s franchise, this is an example of a(n) _____.
 (Points : 1)
obtrusive method
unobtrusive method
experiment
exploratory research study
Question 28.28.
_____ is the process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from among alternative opportunities.
 (Points : 1)
Business
Business research
Decision making
Verification

Question 29.29.
Which degree of causality means that the cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect?
 (Points : 1)
first-degree causality
absolute causality
conditional causality
contributory causality
Question 30.30.
Which of the following means that the decision maker has all information needed to make an optimal decision?
 (Points : 1)
     
certainty
ambiguity     
concomitant variation
non-spurious association

Question 31.31.
_____ means that the researcher alters the level of the experimental variable in specific increments.
 (Points : 1)
Causality
Testing
Analyzing
Manipulation

Question 32.32.
The Small Business Development Center is conducting an email survey with 25 of its client small businesses to examine the use of mobile marketing applications. This is a precursor to a larger study in which the questionnaire will be sent nationwide to more than 1,000 similar small businesses. This initial small-scale project is known as a _____.
 (Points : 1)
testing study
pilot study
preliminary study
test market
Question 33.33.
All of the following are examples of exploratory research techniques EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
previous research
pilot studies
case studies     
experimentation

Question 34.34.
Which of the following is a carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect?
 (Points : 1)
survey
unobtrusive observation
diagnostic analysis
experiment

Question 35.35.
A researcher has completed the fieldwork of collecting data, and now he is checking the data collection forms for omissions, legibility, and consistency in classification. What is this researcher doing?
(Points : 1)
      
analyzing the data

      
editing the data

      
coding the data

      
reporting the results

 

Question 36.36.
A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow is known as a _____.
(Points : 1)
      
diagnostic analysis

      
manipulation

      
causal inference

      
deliverable

 

Question 37.37.
Which of the following represents a situation that makes some potential competitive advantage possible for a business?
(Points : 1)
      
business threat

      
forward linkage

      
symptom
 
 
 

      
business opportunity

 

Question 38.38.
The Food and Drug Administration is targeting salt in processed foods as a health hazard, and some experts believe the agency will require food manufacturers to limit the amount of salt in processed foods. However, the reduction will occur in phases, with salt content being reduced in steps so that consumers will be weaned off of salt gradually. Carefully controlled research studies are underway in which the salt levels are varied and consumers’ reactions to the taste are measured. This research is an example of a(n) _____.
(Points : 1)
      
exploratory study

      
descriptive study

      
experiment

      
diagnostic analysis

 

Question 39.39.
Which of the following involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the entire population?
(Points : 1)
      
sampling

      
theorizing

      
segmenting

      
causal inference

 

Question 40.40.
Janna discovers a market segment that is underserved by competitors’ products. For Janna’s company, this segment represents a _____.
(Points : 1)
      
business threat

      
business opportunity

      
backward linkage

      
test market

 

Question 41.41.
All of the following are gaps that represent problems EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
      
actual business performance is less than possible business performance

      
actual business performance is greater than expected business performance

      
actual business performance is worse than expected business performance

      
expected business performance is greater than possible business performance

 

Question 42.42.
A(n) _____ variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
(Points : 1)
      
primary

      
interactive

      
independent

      
first-order

 

Question 43.43.
A written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer is referred to as a _____.
(Points : 1)
      
problem definition

      
decision statement

      
research proposal

      
hypothesis

 

Question 44.44.
A researcher is asking managers and line workers questions such as what type of problems they experience, where they are most likely to experience them, who is responsible for them, and how the problems get resolved. Asking these what, where, who, when, why, and how questions to get a better understanding of his client’s business decision-making situation is an example of using _____.
(Points : 1)
      
peeling techniques

      
iceberg technique

      
80/20 techniques

      
interrogative techniques

 

Question 45.45.
Once the researcher has identified the key symptoms and identified the key problem(s) from those symptoms, what is the next step the researcher will take in the problem-definition process?
(Points : 1)
      
determine the unit of analysis

      
write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives

      
determine the relevant variables and how to measure them

      
write research questions and/or research hypotheses

 

Question 46.46.
A researcher is gathering background information to familiarize himself with his new client’s business environment. He is analyzing marketplace conditions and conducting interviews with employees of the company. This researcher is conducting a _____.
(Points : 1)
      
gap analysis

      
pre-research analysis

      
basic analysis

      
situation analysis

 

Question 47.47.
Which of the following is a possible unit of analysis in a research study?
(Points : 1)
      
an employee

      
a sales region

      
a zip code area

      
all of these choices

 

Question 48.48.
What type of variable is “gender”?
(Points : 1)
      
continuous variable

      
primary variable

      
dependent variable

      
categorical variable

 

Question 49.49.
Which type of variable indicates membership in some group?
(Points : 1)
      
continuous variable

      
categorical variable

      
lexicographic variable

      
dependent variable

 

Question 50.50.
A(n) _____ involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
(Points : 1)
      
situation analysis

      
exploratory review

      
environmental scan

      
preliminary analysis

 

Question 51.51.
Which of the following make defining problems more difficult?
(Points : 1)
      
situation is recurring or routine

      
a dramatic change occurs

      
symptoms are scattered

      
symptoms are consistent

 

Question 52.52.
An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _____.
(Points : 1)
      
probing

      
peeling

      
immersion

      
ethnography

 

Question 53.53.
All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
      
continuous

      
categorical

      
constant

      
dependent

 

Question 54.54.
A(n) _____ is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
(Points : 1)
      
primary variable

      
absolute variable

      
dependent variable

      
independent variable

 

Question 55.55.
All of the following are steps in the problem-definition process EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
      
identify key problem(s) from symptoms

      
determine the unit of analysis

      
develop dummy tables

      
determine relevant variables

 

Question 56.56.
Which of the following is the most important question a researcher can ask when using a probing technique?
(Points : 1)
      
How does that make you feel?

      
Why do you think that is so?

      
What has changed?

      
What does _____ make you think of?

 

Question 57.57.
Sharon is a management professor who received a grant from the American Management Association to study how employees make decisions in cross-functional groups. Sharon’s research is _____.
(Points : 1)
      
applied business research

      
dependent business research

      
funded business research

      
analytical business research

 

Question 58.58.
Which of the following is the FIRST step of the problem definition process?
(Points : 1)
      
determine the unit of analysis

      
identify the problem

      
identify key symptoms in the situation

      
determine the relevant variables

 

Question 59.59.
In the statement: “Years of sales experience is an important predictor of dollar sales performance,” what type of variable is “dollar sales performance”?
(Points : 1)
      
dependent variable

      
categorical variable

      
classificatory variable

      
independent variable

 

Question 60.60.
Todd has prepared a document that includes the deliverables and a definition of the problem for a research client. In this document, he described how he will conduct a survey along with a schedule of costs and deadlines. What is this document called?
(Points : 1)
      
research proposal

      
research statement

      
research blueprint

      
managerial action statement

 

Question 61.61.
The process of changing the original form of data to a format more suitable for achieving a stated research objective is called _____.
(Points : 1)
      
data conversion

      
reliability assessment

      
cross-checking

      
data mining

 

Question 62.62.
Many retailers mine the databases provided by checkout scanners to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between products purchased and other retail shopping information. This type of analysis is referred to as ____.
(Points : 1)
      
neural networking

      
scandowns

      
database marketing

      
market-basket analysis

 

Question 63.63.
What is it called when a researcher compares secondary data from one source with data from another?
(Points : 1)
      
data conversion

      
cross-check

      
data mining

      
data enhancement

 

Question 64.64.
Sherrie is interested in average monthly sales for smartphones in the United States. She found information on the Internet that gives annual sales, so she took the annual sales and divided it by twelve to get a monthly average. This is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)
      
data mining

      
data division

      
data conversion

      
data validation

 

Question 65.65.
Which of the following data can be purchased from commercial sources?
(Points : 1)
      
advertising research

      
market-share data

      
consumer attitudes and public opinions

      
all of these choices

 

Question 66.66.
When a manager reads publications like The Wall Street Journal and BloombergBusinessweek to try to determine changes in consumer behavior and employment issues, this is a form of _____,
(Points : 1)
      
environmental scanning

      
model building

      
database marketing

      
data mining

 

Question 67.67.
What term is used by the marketing research industry to refer to diverse types of data offered by a single company?
(Points : 1)
      
primary data

      
single-source data

      
compound data

      
integrated data

 

Question 68.68.
Asking a group of households to record their consumption of certain products over a two-year period is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)
      
model building

      
database marketing

      
data conversion

      
diary panel data
 

Question 69.69.
_____ involves specifying relationships between two or more variables, perhaps extending to the development of descriptive or predictive equations.
(Points : 1)
      
Data transformation

      
Data analysis

      
Model building

      
Fact-finding

 

Question 70.70.
A researcher who is interested in new car sales but who discovers that the secondary data from the U.S. government are in the form of statistics that include both car and light truck sales combined in the data has discovered that the data fail to meet which criterion?
(Points : 1)
      
Are the data in the correct unit of measurement?

      
Do the data apply to the time period of interest?

      
Are the data supplied by a reputable source?

      
Do the data show evidence of reliability and validity?

 

Question 71.71.
Lance has noticed that companies that advertise a lot seem to have higher sales than those that do not. His use of secondary data to help specify this relationship is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)
      
data conversion

      
validation

      
reliability

      
model building

 

Question 72.72.
The simplest form of secondary-data research is _____.
(Points : 1)
      
fact-finding

      
model building

      
forecasting sales

      
database marketing

 

Question 73.73.
Facts observed, recorded, and stored by an entity outside of the researcher’s organization are called _____.
(Points : 1)
      
proprietary data

      
external data

      
internal data

      
primary data

 

Question 74.74.
All of the following are producers of external secondary data EXCEPT _____.
(Points : 1)
      
libraries

      
trade associations

      
government

      
media

 

Question 75.75.
If the population of a city is 230,000 and its annual per person expenditure on athletic shoes is $45, if there are 64,688 square feet of retail space used to sell athletic shoes in this city, its index of retail saturation is _____.
(Points : 1)
      
3.56

      
12.65

      
159.99

      
330.06

 

Question 76.76.
L.L.Bean is a retailer best-known for direct marketing through catalogs and the Internet. Laurie purchased from the retailer quite frequently, but since her daughter started college she hasn’t had as much disposable income and stopped ordering merchandise. The elapsed time since her last purchase triggered an offer for $20 off her next purchase from the retailer. This is an example of _____.
(Points : 1)
      
database marketing

      
neural networks

      
customer discovery

      
electronic marketing

 

Question 77.77.
Many companies use powerful computers to dig through volumes of data to discover patterns about their customers and products. This activity is called _____.
(Points : 1)
      
data mining

      
data digging

      
sugging

      
neural networking

 

Question 78.78.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding U.S. government sources of secondary data?
(Points : 1)
      
Most of the data published by the U.S. federal government can be counted on for accuracy and quality of investigation.

      
Provides a real-time view of business news and financial statistics including stock values, exchange rates, and more.

      
Provides customer satisfaction ratings for hundreds of large firms doing business in the United States.

      
Reports market-share data using Universal Product Codes (UPC) and optical scanning at retail store checkouts.

 

Question 79.79.
Obtaining secondary data is typically ______ and ______ expensive than obtaining primary data.
(Points : 1)
      
faster; more

      
slower; more

      
faster; less

      
slower; less

 

Question 80.80.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding sales forecasting?
(Points : 1)
      
The moving average forecasting is best suited to a dynamic competitive environment.

      
Accurate sales forecasts frequently come from secondary data research.

      
Simple moving averages are often applied in practice.

      
Marketing researchers often use internal company sales records to project sales.

 

Question 81.81. Anything that may assume different numerical values is considered a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        variable
        construct
        item
        data point

Question 82.82. In theory development, which of the following is the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object?
(Points : 1)
        empirical level
        primary level
        conceptual level
        abstract level

Question 83.83. The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts is known as _____. (Points : 1)
        deductive reasoning
        generalized reasoning
        inductive reasoning
        conceptual reasoning

Question 84.84. Which of the following means that something has been examined against reality using data? (Points : 1)
        causality
        manipulation
        empirical testing
        spurious association

Question 85.85. The organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general is called the _____. (Points : 1)
        conceptual hierarchy
        ladder of abstraction
        conceptual progression
        operationalization of constructs

Question 86.86. Empathy is a concept that is not directly observable or measurable but is measured through other measures, such as an individual’s thoughts and behaviors toward others.  This is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        latent construct
        empirical construct
        secondary construct
        higher order construct

Question 87.87. At what level do we “experience” reality? (Points : 1)
        empirical level
        abstract level
        primary level
        secondary level

Question 88.88. A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes descriptions of how things relate to one another is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        hypothesis
        theory
        causal statement
        empirical study

Question 89.89. Which of the following is an empirical assessment of a concept? (Points : 1)
        hypothesis
        variable
        construct
        item

Question 90.90. Self-efficacy, which is a generalized idea about how humans perceive their own abilities, is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        hypothesis
        proposition
        concept
        abstraction

Question 91.91. Which of the following is a statement explaining the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts? (Points : 1)
        hypothesis
        proposition
        construct
        theory

Question 92.92. When the data from an empirical study are consistent with a research hypothesis, we say that the hypothesis is _____. (Points : 1)
        confirmed
        conclusive
        supported
        true

Question 93.93. If all the trees a person has seen in his life have been green and therefore he concludes that all trees are green, which type of reasoning is he using? (Points : 1)
        deductive reasoning
        inductive reasoning
        generalized reasoning
        conceptual reasoning

Question 94.94. When a researcher collects data to test the hypothesis that consumers will be more satisfied if a business offers compensation after the consumer complains, we say that _____ testing is being conducted. (Points : 1)
        validation
        confirmation
        observational
        empirical

Question 95.95. Psychologists explain that humans’ better recall of information that is presented visually compared to information presented verbally is due to the fact that the information is stored both visually and verbally.  Because it is stored using this dual-coding process, it is easier to retrieve from memory.  This formal logical explanation of this phenomenon is an example of a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        theory
        construct
        operationalization
        abstraction

Question 96.96. What is the LAST step in the application of the scientific method? (Points : 1)
        assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon
        proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problems raised by the research
        design of research to test the hypothesis
        acquisition of meaningful empirical data

Question 97.97. What are the two goals of theory? (Points : 1)
        speculating and confirming
        understanding and predicting
        deducting and inducting
        abstracting and concretizing

Question 98.98. Which of the following is considered the basic unit for theory development? (Points : 1)
        concept
        proposition
        hypothesis
        variable

Question 99.99. A concept that is not directly observable or measurable but can be estimated through proxy measures is called a(n) _____. (Points : 1)
        indirect construct
        secondary construct
        higher order construct
        latent construct

Question 100.100. A(n) ____ is a generalized idea about a class of objects that has been given a name. (Points : 1)
        variable
        theory
        node
        construct

 

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